An Informational Brief on Polymer Machining

 

Among the many polymer materials we machine at AIP, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is a common material choice for commercial polymer applications.  HDPE is part of the Polyethylene (PE) family of thermoplastic polymers with variable crystalline structure.

 

First developed in the 1950s by German and Italian scientists Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, PE has become one of the most widely produced plastics in the world.  Polyethylene comes in several compounds each with various applications: Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW) are some of the most well-known.

 

For example, you will find LDPE most likely in the grocery store as plastic wrap or grocery bags.  In contrast, HDPE, due to its high density, is much better suited for construction components like a drain pipe.  And UHMW can be machined into high performance applications for medical devices, bulletproof vests and industrial wear components.

 

In this machining guide, we will discuss what goes into machining HDPE and how its considerations differ from other manufacturing options such as metal machining, injection molding, and 3D printing.

 

A Brief History of Plastic CNC Machining

 

How does AIP approach HDPE and its machining process? To start, let’s explore what plastic machining is, specifically CNC machining.

 

CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining is a process in the manufacturing sector that involves the use of computers to control machine tools. In the case of plastic machining, this involves the precise removal of layers from a plastic sheet, rod, tube or near net molded blank.

 

Shortly after World War II, the earliest version of CNC technology was developed as a dependable, repeatable way to manufacture more accurate and complex parts for the aircraft industry.  John Parsons is credited with developing numerical control – a method of producing integrally stiffened aircraft skins.

 

While working at the family-owned, Michigan-based business – Parsons Corp., John collaborated on the development of a system for producing helicopter rotor blade templates.  Using an IBM 602A multiplier to calculate airfoil coordinates, and inputting this data to a Swiss jig borer, it was possible to produce templates from data on punched cards.

 

In 1949 Parson’s templates were applied to Air Force research projects at MIT.  Following extensive research and development, an experimental milling machine was constructed at MIT’s Servomechanisms Laboratory.

 

Machining polymers and composites is a precise science that requires strong technical expertise.  For instance, some plastics are brittle, while others melt at a specific temperature.  These diverse mechanical and thermal properties result in varying behaviors when CNC machined.  Thus, it is imperative to understand the polymer structure and qualities of HDPE if you’re machining it.

 

Ever wonder about the differences in cost and process among 3D Printing, Injection Molding or Plastic Machining?

 

Check out our blog:
“Settling the Debate”

 

 

Properties of HDPE

 

HDPE is a high impact, high density crystalline thermoplastic.  It also has a low moisture absorption rate and good chemical and corrosion resistance.  Compared to its sister polymer LDPE, HDPE offers much greater impact resistance and tensile strength.  This polymer has a melt temperature of 266 F (130 C).  Its tensile strength is 20 MPa (2,900 PSI); to put this number into perspective, a slab of concrete may be able to withstand 3,000 PSI.

 

Oftentimes, people use HDPE in everyday home appliances and commercial containers.  Due to its strength and corrosion resistance, it’s a common candidate for garbage bins, laundry detergent cartons and cutting boards.  It is also safe to use for food contact such as milk cartons.

 

PE is available in sheet stock, rods, and even specialty shapes in a multitude of variants (LDPE, HDPE etc.), making it a good candidate for subtractive machining processes on a mill or lathe. However, colors are usually limited to white and black.

 

Machining HDPE

 

Annealing HDPE

Annealing greatly reduces the chance that surface cracks and deformation due to internal stresses will occur from the heat generated during machining HDPE. AIP uses computer controlled annealing ovens for the highest quality precision machining of all thermoplastics.  Talk to our engineers about any questions you have about the annealing of a specific polymer.

 

Machining HDPE

As a crystalline thermoplastic, HDPE can be machined at tight tolerances; remember dimensional stability and strength!  AIP recommends non-aromatic, water-soluble coolants because they are most suitable for ideal surface finishes and close tolerances. Keep in mind however that HDPE has a very low CTLE and therefore will move quite a bit with slight temperature changes.  Some examples are pressurized air and spray mists. Coolants have the additional benefit of extending tool life as well.

 

Some companies machine both metals and plastics, which has detrimental outcomes for clients. Many past experiences have shown parts going to customer without cracks, only to develop cracks over time due to exposure to metal machine shop fluids. Be sure to use a facility like AIP that only machines polymers.

 

Preventing Contamination

 

Contamination is a serious concern when machining polymer components for technically demanding industries such as aerospace sciences. To ensure the highest level of sanitation down to the sub-molecular level, AIP Precision Machining designs, heat-treats, and machines only plastics with any sub-manufactured metalwork processed outside our facility.  This allows us to de-risk the process from metallic cross contamination.

 

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) Machining Guide: Supportive Information

 

Miscellaneous Materials Guide

ISO 13485:2016 Certification

ISO 9001:2015 Certification

Learn more about HDPE and its applications in other industries

 

Discover what HDPE can do

 

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Learn about the re-useable capabilities of precision plastics

 

In the world of recycling, plastic tends to have a bad reputation or it gets whispered like a dirty word.  Indeed, according to the UN Environment Programm, one million plastic drinking bottles are purchased every minute.  This is certainly a disturbing statistic, and we are tasked with addressing the consequences of this waste.  However, it is important to distinguish the type of plastics causing severe pollution.  Plastic bottles and plastic bags are single-use, disposable plastics.  These are the ones that are clogging up the environment.

 

What people don’t discuss often is plastics that are re-usable and recyclable.  At AIP, the plastics that we precision machine are high grade, quality polymers made for durability and continuous use in the following industries: Aerospace and Defense; Medical and Life Sciences; Power and Energy; Specialized Industrial.  That means they are evergreen materials that will not only last, but could be repurposed for a different application altogether.  Read on to find out about some of the high-performance polymers we work with, what they are used for and how they can be recycled.

 

Everyday Sustainable Precision Plastics
PolymerPropertiesAIP’s Machined Applications
PPSBroadest chemical resistance; zero moisture absorption; dimensional stability; ultra-low wear factors and structural strength

*available in several grades

Case Study: High-quality PPS wheel bushings for a theme park water ride.

  • Reduced ride downtime
  • Saved on maintenance and inventory costs
  • Lower energy cost
  • Efficient design
  • Low-wear
TORLONHighest performing, melt-processible plastic; maintains strength and stiffness up to 500 F; chemical, thermal and stress resistance

*available in several grades

Ideal for critical mechanical and structural components for severe levels of temperature and stress

  • Jet Engine Components
  • High Temperature Electrical Connectors
  • Automotive Transmission components
  • Wear Rings in Oil Recovery
  • Valve Seats
PEEKBiocompatible; abrasion and chemical resistant; low moisture absorption; very low smoke and toxic gas emission

*available in several grades

Case Study: PEEK Dynamic Telescopic Craniotomy (skull plate for brain traumas

  • Reduced ride downtime
  • Saved on maintenance and inventory costs
  • Lower energy cost
  • Efficient design
  • Low-wear
RADELImpact resistance; hydrolytic stability; excellent toughness; chemical resistance; heat deflection temperature of 405 F (207 C)
ULTEMExcellent heat and flame resistance; high rigidity and strength; low thermal conductivity; highest dielectric strength

*available in several grades

Used as structural components in several industries

  • High-voltage circuit-breaker housings
  • High-temperature bobbins, coils, fuse blocks and wire coatings
  • Jet-engine components
  • Aircraft interior and electrical hardware parts
  • Microwave applications
  • Replaces glass in medical lamps

 

Thermoplastics – The Green Plastic

 

There are two types of polymers – thermoplastics and thermosets.  The plastics that we work with primarily at AIP are thermoplastics.  So, what’s a thermoplastic and how is it re-usable or recyclable?

 

It’s all about how the polymer reacts to chemicals and temperature.  Thermoplastics soften when heated and become more fluid, which makes them a very flexible polymer.  For this reason, these plastics can be remolded and recycled without losing their mechanical properties or dimensional stability.  Let’s go in depth on some of the common thermoplastics we use for evergreen applications.

 

The AIP case study focusing on the use of PPS for the log flume ride bushing component is an excellent example of a thermoplastic built and machined for continuous use.  The bushing made from PPS could be used over and over again without wear.  Furthermore, it could be immersed in water and other chemicals without losing dimensionality or durability.

 

PEEK and ULTEM are both common polymers we machine at AIP.  With PEEK’s high chemical resistance and biocompatibility, it is ideal for surgical applications such as the Dynamic Telescopic Craniotomy Case Study.  This polymer can withstand the internal temperatures and fluids of the body for extended use.

 

ULTEM is known for its strength and rigidity in extreme environments and temperatures.  This polymer is often used for re-useable medical instruments, since it reacts well to autoclave sterilizations.  Additionally, it’s flammability rating and dimensional stability make it ideal as a weight-saving aerospace component.

 

As the plastics industry continues to innovate, the next generation of research will turn towards more sustainable and environmentally conscious materials.  Thermoplastics are one of the pioneers of this industry – leading plastics into the future as a material that can be reused and recycled.

 

Unrivaled Expertise. Unparalleled Results

 

With 36+ years of experience in the industry, our dedicated craftsmen and ties to leading plastic manufacturers allow us to provide you with unrivaled knowledge and consulting in material selection, sizing, manufacturing techniques and beyond to best meet your project needs.

 

AIP offers a unique combination of CNC machining, raw material distribution, and consultancy as a reliable source for engineering information for materials such as PEEK, TORLON, ULTEM and more.

 

We are AS 9100D compliant; certified and registered with ISO 13485 and ISO 9001 and standards in our commitment to machining quality custom plastic components for specialized industrial sectors. Quality assurance is included as an integral part of our process and is addressed at every step of your project, from concept to completion.  Unrivaled Expertise.  Unparalleled Results.

 

 

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PART SUMMARY:

 

PEEK (PolyEtherEtherKetone) is a lightweight highly chemical resistant thermoplastic popular in the Aerospace & Defense and Medical & Life Sciences Industries.  From implants to custom medical devices or machined lightweight aircraft components, PEEK is ideal for a variety of specialized applications.

 

MATERIAL PROPERTIES:

 

PEEK is considered a semi-crystalline, high-performance thermoplastic. This gives it enough elasticity to be precision machined to various custom designs, with strong mechanical properties that provide resistance to fatigue and stress-cracking, as well as a good structure for bearing, wear and structural applications.

 

Key properties of PEEK include:

  • Handling at temperatures up to 480°F (250°C)
  • Abrasion Resistance
  • Chemical Resistance
  • High Ductility
  • High Elongation
  • Hydrolysis Resistance
  • Low Outgassing

 

What can this polymer do?

 

Due to its elasticity and resistance to chemicals, abrasion and hydrolysis, PEEK is a highly sought-after thermoplastic for both industrial-grade and medical-grade applications.

 

Common uses include:

  • Aerospace Weight Reduction Components
  • Dental Implants
  • Food and Beverage Automated Manufacturing Equipment
  • Food and Beverage Filling
  • Medical Implants
  • Medical Instruments
  • Metal Replacement
  • Processing Equipment
  • Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment
  • Vacuum Chamber Applications

 

So, what can this polymer do?  Let’s take a closer look at how it is applied in the Aerospace & Defense and Medical & Life Sciences industries:

 

AEROSPACE & DEFENSE

 

In 1978, ICI invented PEEK, a member Of the PAEK (polyaryletherketone) family of thermoplastic polymers.  It quickly gained recognition in the aerospace and defense industry for its weight-saving capabilities over metal alloys.  For example, Airbus used PEEK for a primary structural component in the door of the A350 XWB to improve quality and reduce weight and costs by 40 percent.  Over the next 15 years, industry professionals forecast that 41,000 new and replacement planes will be required.  Officials and engineers in the aerospace industry are looking for alternative high-performance thermoplastics like PEEK to meet this material demand.

 

Read more on PEEK’s impact in the aerospace and defense industry in our downloadable booklet below

 

As demand for stream-lined, innovative materials grows, we continue to serve and precision machine complex polymers for the aerospace and defense industries. For over three decades, we have provided flight control, fuel system, interior, engine and aerodynamic-related PEEK components for various aircraft OEM and MRO providers worldwide.

 

MEDICAL & LIFE SCIENCES

 

PEEK gained traction in the medical industry 20 years after the aerospace industry adopted it. In the late 1990s, Invibio Biomaterial Solutions commercialized a bio-compatible grade of PEEK (PEEK-OPTIMA). Ever since then, demand for medical grade PEEK devices has skyrocketed. From surgical instruments to spinal fusion implants, PEEK has a wide range of applications that only continues to expand in the medical industry.

 

Peek Neurosurgical Case Study

 

One such example of PEEK’s versatility is in neurosurgery for stroke and traumatic brain injuries.  Dr. Rohit Khanna partnered with AIP Precision Machining engineers to create a device that would expand without another operation, yet hold the “bone flap” and the rest of the skull together.

 

Problem

Dr. Rohit Khanna wanted to develop a device that would relieve swelling in the skull for patients undergoing brain surgery, which can lead to complications or even death.

 

Solution

The polymer of choice?  PEEK.  AIP’s engineers machined a medical component that was flexible, strong and sensitive enough to fulfill the necessary requirements for this critical medical part.  PEEK was also the best choice for this medical application because it was the most ductile and biocompatible.

 

medical tool built with peek polymer
 

Resolution

Currently, the FDA is processing the PEEK surgical piece for clearance to conduct clinical trials.  If it is approved to move forward, it can make leaps and bounds in reducing the need for multiple brain surgeries, saving more lives.

 

Get the full case study on PEEK

 

What can this polymer do?

From concept to completion, our team of engineers will work with you to realize the final product.  With some of the fastest lead times in the industry, our unrivaled technical experts we can tackle your polymer challenges.

 

What Can This Polymer Do? Supportive Information

PEEK VARIANTS

 

Download our “What Can This Polymer Do?” booklet.

We’ve put together our premier PEEK applications in a condensed booklet you can take with you.

Learn here.

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Where Does This Part Go?

PPS Wheel Bushing | AIP Precision Machining

 

If you’ve been to a popular Florida amusement park, then it’s possible you’ve encountered the latest part starring in our “Where Does This Part Go?” series.

Find out why this part really makes a “splash” in the section below…

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Thermoplastics in Medical ApplicationsWhen it comes to choosing a thermoplastic material for your medical applications, product durability, agency approval, biocompatibility and cleanliness aren’t just desirable—they’re essential. Beyond even that, though, a host of other factors must be considered when determining which high-performance plastic or composite material to use for an implant, orthopedic surgical guides, body fluid contact components, spinal devices, or surgical instruments. Medical product applications are becoming more and more advanced due to critical performance and alignment requirements as well as the need for radiolucency to support minimally invasive procedures. Therefore, the choice of plastic material specified for a given application as well as a manufacturer with battle-hardened experience is the critical first step in your decision process.

 

AIP has well over three decades of expertise with thermoplastic materials, and understands how plastics react when machined. We are one of a very select few companies able to hold incredibly tight tolerances in plastic parts. AIP has been successfully audited by some of the most stringent OEMs in the orthopedic and medical device industries, and are ISO 13485:2016, ISO 9001:2015 and FDA registered.

 

Here are just a few initial, yet critical considerations that take place when we determine the thermoplastic to best suit your particular medical or life science application.

 

Biocompatibility

 

If your components are going to come into contact with body tissue or fluids, then those components must be biocompatible per ISO 10993; if the manufacturer you are working with is not familiar with this standard and cannot provide you with this certification for the material, then move on to a manufacturer with medical industry knowledge. This is especially true if the polymers will undergo long-term contact with body tissues and fluid, such as when used as an implant. Polymers can undergo degradation due to biochemical and mechanical factors in the body, which results in ionic attack and formation of hydroxyl ions and dissolved oxygen. In turn, this can lead to tissue irritation, inflammation, and other reactions with body-like corrosion, wear and potential death. Due to this, very few polymers are available as medical grade for medical application, with an even smaller amount considered a candidate for implants.

 

AIP Precision Machining includes machined PEEK implants among its many capabilities for custom medical applications precisely due to PEEK’s biocompatibility. PEEK is also inert to body fluids, making it exceptional for bone surgery as well as areas of traumatology and orthopaedics. Another valuable trait of PEEK is that this material has a very similar modulus to that of human bone. The similar modulus to bone reduces the potential for stress shielding. Stress shielding is common with metallic implants whereby the metal implant and bone do not become one nor work in unison to form a single construct. By using Invibio’s PEEK Optima or Solvay’s Zeniva PEEK as an implant material, the bone and PEEK will grow into a single construct mimicking the bone’s natural tendency to repair the fracture or fusion.

 

Sterilization Compatibility

 

Plastics react differently to various sterilization methods, and if a product is not a single-use device and involves body tissue and fluid contact, then it may regularly undergo sterilization. The usual sterilization methods are radiation (gamma/e-beam), chemical (ETO), or autoclave (steam). ETO is rarely a concern, but radiation and autoclaving both require resistance from plastics. Several radiation resistant thermoplastics are:

 

 

When it comes to autoclaving, the best polymers for resistance are PPSU and PEEK, with both capable of handling exposure to thousands of cycles.

 

AIP takes the matter of sterilization seriously and ensures the highest level of sanitation down to the sub-molecular level for its products. By designing, stress relieving and machining only plastics, AIP significantly reduces the threat of metallic cross-contamination and therefore allows for the highest hygienic products possible.

 

Chemical Resistance

 

A polymer can be exposed to plenty of disinfection chemicals in a hospital. That exposure can deteriorate plastics, and negatively affect part performance. Polymer chains can be affected by isopropyl alcohol, bleaches, and peroxides. Semi-crystalline polymers like PP, PE, PTFE and PEEK can be expected to have better chemical resistance than amorphous polymers like ABS and PC. However, it’s important to check the performance to be certain of resistances, as exceptions can take place.

 

With decades of experience working with thermoplastics, AIP guarantees extreme chemical resistance in its material selection for your medical applications.

 

Electrical & Thermal Properties

 

Dielectric strength and thermal resistance are necessary for medical devices enclosed in areas that require high heat resistance. Thermoplastics such as PC (Polycarbonate), PC blends, PPS (polyphenylene sulfide), PEI and PS (polystyrene) blends have electrical properties that perform well, some even at elevated temperatures.

 

AIP’s material library includes thermoplastics that exhibit extreme thermal performance, and we are familiar with machining them in applications for medical life & sciences.

 

Mechanical Properties

 

Properties such as tensile and compressive strength, wear resistance, impact strength, and bending stiffness also must be considered when choosing your thermoplastic. Engineered thermoplastics such as PC, PEEK, PPSU, POM, PEI and reinforced grades of these same materials (glass, aramid and carbon fillers) perform very well in this respect, making them ideal for a variety of climate conditions, such as during transportation.

 

AIP provides thermoplastics that show extreme wear resistance, x-ray visibility or invisibility and high structural performance.

 

These are just a few of the many considerations that take place when choosing the right plastic for your medical applications. AIP offers you our full material consultancy from concept to completion, so that together, we find the right thermoplastic for your projects.

 

 

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Your Brief Guide to Polymer Materials

 

When it comes to polymers, you have two basic types: thermoplastics and thermosets. When machining plastic, it’s crucial to know which one you’re working with due to distinct differences between how these two main polymer categories react to chemicals and temperature.

 

Thermoplastics soften when heated and become more fluid as additional heat is applied. The curing process is completely reversible as no chemical bonding takes place. This characteristic allows thermoplastics to be remolded and recycled without negatively affecting the material’s physical properties. 

 

Thermoplastics possess the following properties:

  • • Good Resistance to Creep
  • • Soluble in Certain Solvents
  • • Swell in Presence of Certain Solvents
  • • Allows for Plastic Deformation when Heated

 

Thermosets contain polymers that cross-link together during the curing process to form an irreversible chemical bond. The cross-linking process eliminates the risk of the product re-melting when heat is applied, making thermosets ideal for high-heat applications such as electronics and appliances.

 

Thermosets possess the following properties:

  • • High Resistance to Creep
  • • Cannot Melt
  • • Insoluble
  • • Rarely Swell in Presence of Solvents

 

Phenolic, Bakelite, Vinyl Ester and Epoxy materials would be considered examples of a thermoset, while ULTEM, PEEK, TORLON and Polycarbonate materials are examples of thermoplastics.

 

The thermoplastic category of polymers is further categorized into Amorphous and Crystalline polymers per the figure below:

 

 

Most amorphous polymers are thermoform capable, translucent and easily bonded with adhesives or solvents. One example of this would be TORLON.

 

Semi-crystalline polymers are difficult to bond or thermoform, but possess better chemical resistances, electrical properties and a low coefficient of fiction. An example of a semi-crystalline polymer would be PEEK.

 

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With over two decades of experience machining precision plastic and composite parts for the Aerospace & Defense industry, AIP Precision Machining knows that weight and strength are critical for your flight-ready hardware. That’s why we’ve carefully selected, machined and tested all our thermoplastic materials to various aerospace and defense industry standards. Our lightweight polymers and composites have stable chemical and corrosion resistance, as well as improved strength to weight ratios when compared to exotic alloys and non-ferrous metals. AIP’s polymer and composite materials maintain their properties even at high temperatures.

 

Here are some specific examples of thermoplastic materials commonly used in the Aerospace & Defense industry.

 

ULTEM-PEI

ULTEM – PEI

ULTEM has one of the highest dielectric strengths of any thermoplastic material. This enables ULTEM to work very efficiently as an electrical insulator. Being resistant to both hot water and steam, ULTEM can withstand repeated cycles in a steam autoclave and operate in high service temperature environments (340F or 170C). ULTEM also has one of the lowest rates of thermal conductivity among thermoplastics, allowing machined ULTEM parts to act as thermal insulators. ULTEM is FDA and NSF approved for both food and medical contact, making it an excellent choice for aircraft galley equipment such as ovens, microwaves and hot or cold beverage dispensing systems. Finally, its UL94 V-O flame rating with very low smoke output makes this material ideal for aircraft interior components.

 

 

CELAZOLE - PBI

CELAZOLE – PBI

CELAZOLE provides the highest mechanical properties of any thermoplastic above 400F (204C) and offers a continuous use operating temperature of 750F (399C). This impressive lightweight material has outstanding high-temperature mechanical properties for use in aircraft engines and other HOT section areas. These properties include good fatigue resistance, compressive strength, wear resistance and electrical insulation. After being submerged in hydraulic fluid at 200°F for thirty days, CELAZOLE retains 100% tensile strength.

 

 

RYTON – PPS

RYTON’s inherent fire retardancy, thermal stability, and corrosion resistance make it perfectly suited for aerospace applications, while its dimensional stability means even the most intricate parts can be manufactured from RYTON with very tight tolerances. RYTON is typically used for injection molded parts; however, there is limited availability of extruded rod and plate for machining.

 

 

 

DURATRON PI

VESPEL or DURATRON – PI

Like RYTON, VESPEL is dimensionally stable and has fantastic temperature resistance. It can operate uninterrupted from cryogenic temperatures to 550°F, with intermittent to 900°F. Thanks to its high wear and friction resistance, VESPEL performs with excellence and longevity in severe aerospace environments. VESPEL is a trademark material of DuPont and can be provided in direct formed blanks or finished parts directly from DuPont. AIP has provided precision machined components from DuPont manufactured rod and plate stock. You can typically find VESPEL used in high temperature and high-speed bearing and wear applications, such as stator bushings.

 

 

TORLON

TORLON or DURATRON – PAI

DURATRON PAI’s extremely low coefficient of linear thermal expansion and high creep resistance deliver excellent dimensional stability over its entire service range. PAI is an amorphous material with a Tg (glass transition temperature) of 537°F (280°C). DURATRON PAI stock shapes are post-cured using procedures developed jointly by BP Amoco under the TORLON trade name and Quadrant under the DURATRON trade name. PAI components fabricated from extruded shapes that require optimization of chemical resistance and/or wear performance often receive a post-curing cycle. You can find TORLON parts in structural, wear and electrical aerospace applications.

 

 

TECHTRON

TECHTRON – PPS

TECHTRON has essentially zero moisture absorption, which allows products manufactured from this material to maintain extreme dimensional and density stability. PPS is highly chemical resistant and can operate while submerged in harsh chemicals. Additionally, TECHTRON is inherently flame retardant and can be easily machined to close tolerances. PPS has a broader resistance to chemicals than most high-performing plastics, as well. TECHTRON can work well as an alternative to PEEK at lower temperatures for this reason.

 

 

 

RADEL

RADEL – PPSU

With high heat and high impact performance, RADEL delivers better impact resistance and chemical resistance than other sulfone-based polymers, such as PSU and PEI. Its toughness and long-term hydrolytic stability mean it performs well even under autoclave pressure. Importantly, RADEL R5500 meets the stringent aircraft flammability requirements of 14CFR Part 25. These allow the aircraft design engineer to provide lightweight, safe and aesthetically pleasing precision components for various aircraft interior layouts. RADEL can also be polished to a mirror finish and is FDA and NSF approved for food and beverage contact.

 

 

 

KEL-F

KEL – F

Kel-F is a winning combination of physical and mechanical properties, non-flammability, chemical resistance, near-zero moisture absorption and of course outstanding electrical properties. This stands out from other thermoplastic fluoropolymers, as only Kel-F has these characteristics in a useful temperature range of -400°F to +400°F. In addition, it has very low outgassing and offers extreme transmissivity for radar and microwave applications. Many aircraft and ground-based random applications use Kel-F.

 

 

 

PEEK

PEEK

PEEK can be used continuously in temperatures of 480°F (250°C) and in hot water or steam without permanent loss of physical properties. For hostile environments, PEEK is a high strength alternative to fluoropolymers. PEEK carries a V-O flammability rating and exhibits very low smoke and toxic gas emission when exposed to flame. These aren’t the only reasons that PEEK is an increasingly popular choice for metal replacement in aerospace, however. Many manufacturers prefer PEEK for its lightweight nature, mechanical strength, creep and fatigue resistance, as well as its ease of processing. These and other exceptional physical and thermal characteristics make PEEK a versatile thermoplastic polymer for many aerospace applications. AIP has provided flight control, fuel system, interior, engine and aerodynamic-related PEEK components for various aircraft OEM and MRO providers worldwide.

 

 

KYNAR - PVDF

KYNAR – PVDF

Another example of thermoplastic materials used in aerospace and defense is KYNAR, or PVDF. This polymer has impressive chemical resistance at ambient and elevated temperatures, as well as good thermomechanical and tensile strength. KYNAR is extremely durable due to its weather-ability and toughness even in the most severe environments. In addition to being flame-resistant, KYNAR is easy to machine, too. You can typically find KYNAR components in pipe fitting and various fuel or other fluid related precision manifolds or connectors.

 

 

 

 

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