aerospace cryogenic seals


In the aerospace industry, the relentless pursuit of reliability and performance under extreme conditions is a constant. Cryogenic seals, essential components in space exploration vehicles and equipment, face the daunting task of maintaining integrity in the vastness of space.


Traditional materials often fall short in the face of extreme cryogenic temperatures and harsh environmental conditions. This article details the utilization of advanced polymers – FEP, PFA, PTFE, VESPEL®, and PCTFE – offering aerospace engineers robust solutions for their challenging cryogenic seal applications.



Challenges in Aerospace Cryogenic Sealing

Cryogenic sealing in aerospace confronts a number of challenges, primarily due to the extreme temperature fluctuations when operating in the vacuum of space. Traditional materials like elastomers, while adequate in moderate conditions, become brittle and lose elasticity at temperatures below -60°F (-51°C) or above 300°F (149°C), leading to failures in seals. This necessitates the exploration of materials that can endure such harsh conditions while maintaining their mechanical properties.


High-performance polymers not only meet but exceed the stringent requirements of aerospace applications, making them the materials of choice for cryogenic seals. Here we’ll detail the unique attributes of FEP, PFA, PTFE, VESPEL®, and PCTFE, and how each contributes to overcoming the unique challenges of space.



High-Performance Polymers: An Overview

In aerospace applications, especially for cryogenic seals, the choice of material is critical. High-performance polymers like FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene), PFA (Perfluoroalkoxy Alkane), PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene), VESPEL®, and PCTFE (Polychlorotrifluoroethylene) offer unique properties that make them superior to conventional sealing materials in extreme conditions.



Detailed Analysis of Each Polymer

The following list explains key properties of high-performance polymers — FEP, PFA, PTFE, VESPEL®, and PCTFE — such as chemical resistance, thermal stability, and application suitability. This comparison provides aerospace engineers with essential data for informed material selection in cryogenic environments.


FEP: This polymer is known for its exceptional resistance to aggressive chemicals, making it ideal for handling the corrosive substances often encountered in aerospace applications. FEP maintains robust physical properties even at very low temperatures, crucial for cryogenic applications. Its ability to withstand a wide temperature range (-328°F to 400°F) without losing its mechanical properties makes it an excellent choice for seals that need to maintain integrity in varying thermal conditions.


PFA: Similar to FEP in its resistance to chemicals, PFA offers even greater strength at high temperatures, up to 500°F. This thermal stability is critical in aerospace applications where seals may be exposed to rapid temperature changes. Its non-stick and low friction properties also contribute to its suitability for dynamic sealing applications where minimal resistance is desired.


PTFE: Renowned for its outstanding chemical inertness, PTFE remains stable across a wide temperature range, from -328°F to 500°F. This makes PTFE particularly capable in cryogenic sealing, where materials are often exposed to extremely low temperatures. PTFE’s low coefficient of friction minimizes wear in dynamic applications, extending the lifespan of seals under motion.


VESPEL®: This polyimide-based thermoplastic is distinguished by its exceptional heat resistance, with a continuous operating temperature up to 500°F. Its low outgassing properties at high temperatures make it suitable for vacuum applications, a common scenario in space environments. VESPEL®’s dimensional stability and creep resistance are vital in maintaining seal integrity under fluctuating pressure and temperature conditions, common in cryogenic aerospace applications​​.


PCTFE: Known for its low moisture absorption, PCTFE is especially useful in vacuum conditions like those found in space. Its high compressive strength and nonflammability are essential for maintaining seal integrity in the presence of cryogenic fluids. PCTFE’s excellent chemical resistance ensures durability when exposed to aggressive chemicals, a common challenge in aerospace environments.


EngineEach of these polymers brings a unique set of properties to the table, making them highly suitable for the demanding requirements of aerospace cryogenic seals. Their combined characteristics of chemical resistance, thermal stability, low moisture absorption, and mechanical durability under extreme conditions position them as optimal materials for aerospace applications, where failure is not an option.


 Having explored the individual properties and benefits of each high-performance polymer, it’s crucial to understand how they compare when applied to aerospace cryogenic seals.


This comparative analysis will shed light on the practical implications of choosing one polymer over another, considering the specific demands of aerospace applications. By evaluating their performance side-by-side, we can discern the most suitable material for specific cryogenic sealing applications in the aerospace industry.



Comparative Analysis: Aerospace Applications

Comparing these polymers reveals each material’s unique advantages for cryogenic seals in aerospace. PTFE’s low friction makes it suitable for dynamic seals, while VESPEL’s thermal stability is crucial for static applications in extreme temperatures. PCTFE’s moisture resistance is invaluable in the vacuum of space​.


The following table compares key properties of high-performance polymers — FEP, PFA, PTFE, VESPEL®, and PCTFE — such as chemical resistance, thermal stability, and application suitability. This comparison provides aerospace engineers with essential data for informed material selection in cryogenic environments.




Polymer Chemical Resistance Thermal Stability Low Friction Outgassing at High Temp Moisture Absorption Applications in Aerospace
FEP High -328°F to 400°F Yes Low Low Dynamic Seals
PFA High -328°F to 500°F Yes Low Low Dynamic Seals
PTFE Highest -328°F to 500°F Yes Low Low Dynamic Seals
VESPEL® High Up to 500°F No Minimal Small amount Static Applications
PCTFE High Low No N/A Low Static Applications


The comparative analysis underscores the tailored suitability of each polymer for specific aerospace applications. However, selecting the right material is only part of the equation. The next critical step is the precision machining of these materials into functional cryogenic seals. This section will discuss the machining considerations essential for realizing the potential of these high-performance polymers in aerospace applications. AIP Precision Machining’s expertise in this domain ensures that the advanced properties of these polymers are fully harnessed in the final cryogenic seal products.



Machining Considerations for Aerospace Cryogenic Seals

The machining of materials for cryogenic seals demands meticulous attention to detail. Given the extreme conditions of space, even minuscule discrepancies in the dimensions of a seal can lead to catastrophic outcomes. It is here that the micro-precision in machining comes into play, especially for high-performance polymers like FEP, PFA, PTFE, VESPEL®, and PCTFE.


The precision required for these polymers is of the highest order, often necessitating tolerances as tight as 0.002 mm. This level of accuracy is imperative to ensure that each seal perfectly fits its designated space, providing an airtight barrier against the harsh conditions of outer space.


Any deviation, however minor, can compromise the integrity of the seal, leading to potential failure of the system it is meant to protect. In the vacuum of space, where repair is not a viable option, the reliability of every component is crucial.


For polymers like PTFE and VESPEL®, known for their low friction and thermal stability, the precision in machining also dictates their performance over time. Inaccuracies in dimensions can lead to increased wear and tear, reducing the longevity of these components in critical aerospace applications.


Similarly, for PCTFE and FEP, known for their chemical resistance and low moisture absorption, precision machining ensures that their properties are fully utilized, maintaining the seal’s integrity in the presence of volatile cryogenic fluids.


AIP Precision Machining has routinely demonstrated the capability to achieve extreme precision of up to 0.002 mm. AIP stands at the forefront of machining high-performance polymers for aerospace applications, as their experienced technicians and state-of-the-art technology ensure that each component is machined to exact specifications, leaving no room for error.

By entrusting the machining of cryogenic seals to AIP, aerospace engineers can significantly mitigate the risks associated with material and manufacturing inaccuracies, ensuring the reliability and success of their space missions.


In conclusion, the precision in machining cryogenic seals from high-performance polymers is not just a matter of technical requirement but a critical factor in the success of aerospace projects. The utilization of advanced machining capabilities, such as those offered by AIP Precision Machining, is crucial in ensuring that these components meet the stringent demands of space, where every micron counts and any error can lead to irrevocable consequences.





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The global medical polymer market is a highly dynamic sector, expected to experience substantial growth from 2024 to 2030. This article delves into the key factors influencing this market’s expansion, including technological advancements, regulatory frameworks, regional disparities, and the impact of the global health crisis. This comprehensive review aims to provide valuable insights for engineers, business professionals, and those accustomed to MBA-level discourse.


Key Takeaways

MARKET GROWTH (2024-2030)

The global medical polymer market is projected to grow significantly, from USD 20.44 billion in 2022 to USD 38.3 billion by 2030, with a CAGR of around 8%.


Adoption of Polymers in Medical Implants: Due to their chemical inertness and superior fatigue resistance.

Demand for In-House and Advanced Medical Devices: Increasing need for advanced healthcare solutions.



By Product: Fibers & resins, medical elastomers, biodegradable polymers.

By Application: Medical device packaging, medical components, wound care.


North America leads in production and consumption.

Europe follows closely, driven by political support and favorable regulations.

Asia-Pacific expected to see the fastest growth.





·         Growing pharmaceutical devices market.

·         Rising demand among aging populations and for medical procedures.

·         Increasing use of polyethylene-based surgical instruments.


·         Stringent government regulations.

·         Fluctuations in raw material prices.



·         Advancements in biodegradable polymers for medical applications.

·         Technological innovations in medical device packaging and diagnostics.



Notable companies like BASF SE, Bayer, Celanese, DSM, DuPont, etc., are prominent in the market.


While facing regulatory and material cost challenges, the market has opportunities in biodegradable materials and technological advancements.


1. Market Overview

The global medical polymer market was valued at approximately USD 20.44 billion in 2022 and is projected to reach a staggering USD 38.3 billion by 2030, growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of around 8%. This significant growth can be attributed to several factors, including the high adoption of polymers in medical implants due to their chemical inertness and superior fatigue resistance, and the rise in the demand for in-house and advanced medical devices.



2. Market Dynamics


2.1 Market Drivers

2.1.1 Increasing Pharmaceutical Devices Market

The expanding pharmaceutical device sector is a major driver for the growth of the medical polymer market. With the continuous advancements in medical technology and the increasing demand for advanced healthcare solutions, the need for medical polymers has witnessed a significant surge.

2.1.2 Aging Populations and Medical Procedures

The aging population is another prominent factor propelling the demand for medical polymers. As the elderly population increases, the requirement for medical procedures, particularly those involving the use of implants and surgical instruments, also rises. This trend is expected to continue, further fueling the market growth1.

2.1.3 Increasing Demand for Polyethylene-Based Surgical Instruments

The rising demand for polyethylene-based surgical instruments has significantly contributed to the growth of the medical polymer market. Polyethylene, due to its durability, flexibility, and compatibility with human tissues and fluids, is an ideal choice for various medical applications.

2.2 Market Restraints

2.2.1 Stringent Government Regulations

Stringent government regulations governing new products and their usage in the medical field pose a significant challenge to market expansion. Approval processes for new products can be lengthy and rigorous, potentially hindering the market growth.

2.2.2 Fluctuating Raw Material Prices

The production of medical polymers is heavily reliant on raw materials like ethylene, propylene, caprolactam, corn starch, and silica stone. Fluctuating prices of these raw materials can affect the production cost, thereby impacting the overall market.

2.3 Market Opportunities

2.3.1 Biodegradable Polymers in Medical Applications

The increasing use of biodegradable materials in the creation of medical implants presents a lucrative opportunity for the medical polymer market. This is due to the escalating environmental concerns and stringent government regulations for polymers used in the medical sector. As these materials are both cost-effective and efficient alternatives to conventional materials, they are expected to witness increased adoption in the near future.

2.3.2 Technological Innovations and Advancements

Technological innovations like device miniaturization, multipurpose medicine packaging, and point-of-care (POC) diagnostic equipment have significantly contributed to the rapid expansion of the global medical polymers market. As companies collaborate to develop novel solutions to meet the growing market demands, the use of polymer in medical applications is expected to rise, thereby boosting the market’s growth rate.



3. Market Segmentation

The medical polymer market can be segmented based on the type of product and its applications.

3.1 By Product

3.1.1 Fibers & Resins

Fibers and resins, such as Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Polypropylene (PP), account for the largest market share due to their diverse applications in medical devices and equipment. They are highly sought after due to their high melting point, good resistance to dilute acids, alcohol, alkalis, high density, low-cost, good processability, good electrochemical insulation, good impact strength, very low water absorption, and FDA compliance.

3.1.2 Medical Elastomers

Medical elastomers like Styrene Block Copolymer and Rubber latex are also witnessing significant demand in the healthcare sector. Their lightweight, high bacterial, and chemical resistance properties make them ideal for various medical applications.

3.1.3 Biodegradable Polymers

Biodegradable polymers like Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) are anticipated to witness the fastest growth during the forecast period. This is primarily attributed to the increasing awareness regarding environment-friendly products and efforts to replace conventional plastics.

3.2 By Application

3.2.1 Medical Device Packaging

Medical polymers find extensive use in medical device packaging. The creation of innovative biomaterials that can enhance the performance and biocompatibility of medical devices is driving the demand in this sector. In addition, biodegradable polymers in packaging are designed to break down after use, thereby preventing plastic pollution.

3.2.2 Medical Components

Medical components constitute another significant area of application for medical polymers. The lightweight and high bacterial resistance properties offered by the polymers make them an ideal choice for this sector.

3.2.3 Wound Care

The wound care sector is also expected to witness considerable growth in the demand for medical polymers. This is attributed to the growing geriatric population, increasing prevalence of diabetes, and surging incidence of chronic wounds.



4. Regional Analysis

The global medical polymer market is divided into several regions, including North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Rest of the World.

4.1 North America

North America is the largest market for medical polymers, both in terms of production and consumption. The region’s market growth can be attributed to the strong awareness of personal healthcare, which has pushed healthcare expenditure per person. The presence of key players, considerable R&D investments, and high demand in end-user sectors such as medical devices and equipment are expected to sustain the North American medical polymer market.

4.2 Europe

Europe follows North America closely in terms of market share. The region’s growth is driven by the growing political support and favorable reimbursement regulations for medical devices. Additionally, updates to the region’s medical device directives are expected to improve the effectiveness, innovation potential, and safety of medical products, thereby driving the demand for better medical devices.

4.3 Asia-Pacific

The Asia-Pacific region is expected to witness the fastest growth in the medical polymers market. This is attributed to the rising healthcare infrastructure and medical expenses in developing countries such as India, Japan, China, and South Korea. The expanding healthcare systems in the region, along with increased awareness of medical procedures, are driving the market growth.



5. Key Players in The Market

The global medical polymer market is consolidated with the presence of major players, including BASF SE, Bayer, Celanese, DSM, DuPont, Solvay, Eastman Chemical, Evonik, HEXPOL, Exxon Mobil, Formosa Plastics, INEOS, Petrochina, Eastman Chemical Company, Mitsui Chemicals, Inc., and Celanese Corporation. These players have been involved in partnerships, expansions, and product innovations to stay ahead of their competitors.



As we anticipate the dynamic period up to 2030, it’s clear that the global medical polymer market is set for transformative growth, propelled by technological advancements, increased healthcare investments, and varied application needs. While navigating challenges like stringent government regulations and the volatility of raw material prices, the burgeoning opportunities in biodegradable polymers and innovative technologies cannot be overlooked. This shifting market landscape emphasizes the need for precision, innovation, and compliance in both material production and application.

At AIP, we find ourselves at the forefront of this evolving market. Our four decades of experience in precision machining and our specialized knowledge in high-performance plastics and composites uniquely position us to meet the burgeoning demands of the medical polymer industry. We excel in working with materials like PEEK, Polysulfone, ULTEM, and Torlon, delivering components that exhibit unmatched chemical, thermal, and structural resistance – vital characteristics for medical polymer applications.

Our contributions extend beyond the medical field into sectors such as semiconductor manufacturing, heavy industry, chemical processing, and the power and energy sectors. Our expertise in advanced 5-axis and 7-axis plastics machining, CNC milling, and turning ensures that we produce components with the highest precision and quality. Our commitment to excellence is further evidenced by our adherence to AS 9100, ISO 13485, and ISO 9001 certifications.

As the medical polymer market evolves, the demand for customized solutions and rapid prototyping grows.

Our rapid prototyping services, which are capable of delivering complex prototypes in less than 10 business days, and our collaborative approach to client relationships ensure that each project we undertake is not just a transaction but a partnership toward groundbreaking innovations.

If you’re looking for a partner who understands the nuances of the medical polymer market and can deliver high-quality, compliant, and precision-engineered solutions, AIP is your ideal choice. I invite you to engage with us and explore how our expertise in high-performance plastics and composites can enhance your projects and help you successfully navigate the thriving medical polymer market.

Contact AIP today, and let’s shape the future of medical polymers together.




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PEEK’s Dominance in Medical Device Manufacturing

In the competitive landscape of medical device manufacturing, the choice of material plays a pivotal role in determining the quality, reliability, and safety of the end product. PEEK (polyetheretherketone) has emerged as an exceptionally promising alternative to traditional metals, presenting a slew of benefits that cater specifically to the unique demands of the medical field.

In particular, PEEK’s unique qualities make it a prime choice for medical applications where chemical resistance and exposure are prominent. Whether inside the body or in the operating room, PEEK provides biocompatibility, structural stability, and continuous mechanical functionality at high temperatures in critical environments.

Join us in our informational brief on why medical device manufacturers are increasingly seeking PEEK over metals for medical R&D applications.



Biocompatibility and Safety

PEEK excels in biocompatibility, a critical factor for medical devices, especially those that come into direct contact with the body. It has successfully cleared all ISO 10993 biocompatibility tests for both short and long-term implants. This ensures minimal risk of adverse reactions when used in vivo, eliminating concerns associated with metals, such as metallosis or allergic reactions.

In a case study for reducing the need for brain surgery operations, PEEK became the top choice material for Dynamic Telescopic Craniotomy. Not only did this PEEK innovation provide biocompatibility with human tissue, it also expanded with brain swelling following a cranial surgery. This vital aspect of PEEK’s performance as a polymer highlights how it can advance brain surgery techniques and improve recovery times for patients.



Adaptable Design and Customization

PEEK’s inherent versatility supports a broad range of intricate and patient-specific designs. It can be CNC machined to create detailed medical devices or components with high precision. This adaptability is especially beneficial in the dynamic landscape of medical technology, where ongoing innovation and customization are paramount.

PEEK’s ability to perform with human tissue and fluids makes it an excellent choice for spinal implants, brain flap surgeries, and facio-skeletal restructuring. Research shows that medical grade PEEK material forms a solid structure while also providing malleability for complex shapes. Add biocompatibility and a low rate of infection to the list, and it’s no wonder that PEEK is a top pick in the medical industry for these intricate skeletal restructurings.

→ Read Now:  “The Advantages of PEEK in Orthopedic and Spinal Fusion



Chemical Resistance and Sterilization Ease

In the medical world, devices often come into contact with a variety of chemicals, be it medications, sterilization agents, or bodily fluids. PEEK is chemically inert, resisting potential degradation or reactions that could compromise the device’s functionality or patient safety. Furthermore, PEEK devices can be sterilized using standard medical sterilization techniques without compromising the material’s integrity.


Advantages of PEEK’s chemical resistance

PEEK is relatively inert and biocompatible while also withstanding temperatures up to 100°C. Under the right circumstances, .005” – .020” ID tubing can be used up to 5000 psi for a limited time, and 0.030” to 3000 psi. Larger IDs are typically good to 500 psi. These limits are substantially reduced at elevated temperatures and in contact with some solvents or acids. Its mechanical properties allow PEEK to be used instead of stainless in many situations and in some environments where stainless would be too reactive.

However, PEEK can be somewhat absorptive of solvents and analytes, notably methylene chloride, DMSO, THF, and high concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid. This tubing is highly prone to “kinking”, or sealing off, if held in a sharp bend over time.

The chart at the right shows the chemical resistance of PEEK at 200°C (420°F). PEEK exhibits excellent resistance to a wide range of organic and inorganic chemicals. The compatibility of PEEK with many chemicals at 20 °C (68 °F) has been investigated and the results for unreinforced grades are favorable. PEEK is compatible with almost any of the solvents used in HPLC. The only solvent which will attack PEEK are concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acids.




PEEK Performance and Innovation

The demands of the medical device industry are uniquely stringent, requiring materials that are safe, reliable, and adaptable. PEEK, with its remarkable blend of properties tailored to medical needs, has proven to be an invaluable choice for manufacturers. By integrating PEEK into their production, medical device manufacturers can ensure not only the longevity and reliability of their products but also the safety and well-being of the patients they serve.

Traditional metals such as titanium have a strong challenger in PEEK’s performance and innovation offering. It provides a combination of biocompatibility, chemical resistance and machinability that the medical industry demands.

While PEEK is a more expensive material, the benefits in long-term patient care and medical advancements can make a difference in ROI. When looking for a machinist to work with on your PEEK R&D project, consider one such as AIP with over 40 years of experience working with performance medical projects, FDA approved, and ISO 13485 compliant. Our facility only works with polymers, which is an important factor when machining any performance material. We promise to work with you from concept to completion of your project with the ability to turn around a prototype within 10 business days. Let our team go to work for you. Call us at 386.274.5335. Learn more about AIP’s medical industry capabilities and unrivaled PEEK results.



5 Advantages of PEEK Over Metals in the Pharma Industry

PEEK’s Superiority in Performance Engineering Applications

In the vast world of thermoplastics, PEEK (polyetheretherketone) stands out for its notable advantages over traditional metal fabrication. Especially within the pharma industry, where precision, reliability, and safety are paramount, PEEK has become the preferred choice for many applications.


Here’s why PEEK is gaining traction and gradually outclassing metals:

Enhanced Performance and Longevity

PEEK showcases a remarkable balance of durability and resilience, akin to metals. It operates efficiently at temperatures of up to 480°F and exhibits resistance to corrosion with a lower coefficient of friction. In dynamic pharma applications like centrifuge components or fluid seals, PEEK not only increases load capacity but also extends the service life. The outcome? Less frequent maintenance and prolonged, reliable performance.


High Purity and Biocompatibility

In the pharma world, material purity isn’t just a requirement; it’s the gold standard. PEEK’s inherent chemical structure ensures that it doesn’t react adversely with medications or other chemicals present in pharmaceutical processing. Variants of PEEK, such as Glass-Filled PEEK, PEEK-HT (High Temperature), and PEEK-UHP (Ultra-High Purity), are well-suited to replace metals in critical pharmaceutical applications, eliminating concerns like metallosis, which can be a problem with metal implants.


Lightweight Yet Durable

While the pharma industry might not be as weight-sensitive as aerospace, a reduction in component weight can lead to more streamlined and efficient machines. PEEK offers the robustness of metals but at a substantially reduced weight. This lightweight nature can contribute to reduced wear and tear, energy conservation, and overall better efficiency in pharmaceutical machinery.


Overall Reduction in System Cost

While the initial cost of PEEK might be higher compared to some metals, it’s essential to look beyond mere material costs. Given PEEK’s longevity, reduced maintenance needs, and its ability to lead to more efficient machinery, its value over time often surpasses that of metals. When considering the total system cost, including potential downtimes, repairs, and replacements, PEEK emerges as a cost-effective choice for the pharma industry.


In Conclusion

The pharmaceutical sector, with its rigorous standards and constant push for innovation, demands materials that can keep pace. PEEK, with its impressive array of properties, stands out as an exceptional alternative to metals. By partnering with industry experts like AIP Precision Machining, pharmaceutical companies can leverage the full potential of PEEK, ensuring that their products and machinery are not just cutting-edge but also reliable and cost-effective.

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The global aerospace parts manufacturing industry, a critical contributor to modern aviation, is anticipated to experience significant growth in the coming years. The sector is set to overcome the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, with robust recovery driven by increasing demand for new aircraft, advancements in technology, and the growing need for replacement parts and maintenance. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the market, highlighting key trends, opportunities, and challenges shaping its projected trajectory from 2023 to 2033.



Market Overview and Dynamics

The aerospace parts manufacturing industry is a vital segment within the broader aviation sector, producing critical components for different types of aircraft, including commercial planes, space rockets, satellites, business jets, and military aircraft. These parts, ranging from engines and avionics to cabin interiors and insulation components, are produced using advanced manufacturing techniques that ensure precision, durability, and reliability.

The global aerospace parts manufacturing market, valued at US$ 910 billion in 2023, is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.6% over the next decade, reaching US$ 1,297 billion by 2033. This growth is largely driven by the increasing number of air passengers and the subsequent rise in demand for new aircraft. Other contributing factors include advancements in material science, the advent of 3D printing in aerospace manufacturing, and growing investments in military aviation.

However, the industry is not without its challenges. Fluctuations in the cost of components and stringent regulatory environments can hamper market growth. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant downturn in the sector due to strict travel restrictions and economic downturns. Yet, industry players are steadily overcoming these hurdles, strategically positioning themselves for sustained growth in the post-pandemic era.



Key Market Drivers

Rising Demand for Aircraft Maintenance and Replacement

AEROSPACE PARTS MANUFACTURINGOne of the primary growth drivers for the aerospace parts manufacturing industry is the increasing demand for aircraft maintenance and replacement. As commercial airlines, military aircraft, and general aviation operations continue to expand, the need for high-quality, reliable aircraft components escalates. Furthermore, with aircraft often exposed to harsh environmental conditions, the need for regular maintenance and part replacement is paramount, ensuring operational safety and efficiency.



Emergence of Composite Materials in Aerospace Manufacturing


The introduction of composite materials in aerospace manufacturing is revolutionizing the industry. These lightweight, durable materials, such as carbon-fiber composites, are increasingly used in various aircraft components, including fuselage, doors, tail surfaces, and wings. They not only reduce the weight of the aircraft but also enhance fuel efficiency and overall performance.



Market Challenges

Fluctuating Costs of Components

The cost of aerospace components is a crucial determinant of the market’s supply and demand dynamics. Macroeconomic and microeconomic factors often cause fluctuations in these costs, which can hamper demand. High manufacturing costs, in particular, can create barriers for market development, making it difficult for manufacturers to maintain competitive pricing.



Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic

 The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the aerospace parts manufacturing industry. With international flights grounded and demand for air travel plummeting, airlines faced massive losses, disrupting aircraft production operations. This, in turn, affected investments and projects centered around aerospace parts manufacturing. However, as restrictions ease and the industry recovers, the market is expected to regain momentum.



Growth Opportunities

Increasing Use of Predictive Maintenance

AEROSPACE PARTS MANUFACTURINGPredictive maintenance, powered by big data and analytics, is transforming the aviation industry. By leveraging flight-recorded data, airlines can significantly reduce maintenance expenditures and enhance operational efficiency. This trend is creating unique growth opportunities for aerospace parts manufacturers, enabling them to meet evolving industry requirements.



Market Segmentation

The global aerospace parts manufacturing market can be segmented based on product type and aircraft type. By product type, the market is divided into engines, aircraft manufacturing, cabin interiors, equipment, systems, and support, avionics, and insulation components. The insulation components and equipment segment dominated the market in 2022, accounting for approximately 22.82% of the market share.

In terms of aircraft type, the market is segmented into commercial aircraft, business aircraft, military aircraft, and others. The commercial aircraft segment dominated the market in 2022, accounting for around 56.78% of the market share. The rise in domestic and international air travel, coupled with the growing production of low-cost carriers, is expected to drive growth in this segment.



Regional Analysis

From a geographical perspective, the global aerospace parts manufacturing market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, and the Middle East & Africa. North America, with a market revenue share of 36.03% in 2022, is expected to dominate the market, driven by the active adoption of advanced aerospace technologies and the presence of prominent aerospace companies.

Asia-Pacific is expected to witness significant growth, driven by the rising demand for air travel, increasing production of low-cost carriers, and the growth of the domestic aerospace parts manufacturing industry. On the other hand, political instability and low economic development may hinder market growth in the Middle East & Africa, and Latin America.



Key Players and Competitive Analysis

The global aerospace parts manufacturing market is highly competitive, with key players focusing on adopting new technologies, innovating products, and engaging in strategic mergers and acquisitions, alliances, and partnerships to strengthen their market position.

Key players in the market include Safran Group, GE Aviation, Diehl Aviation, Boeing, Intrex Aerospace, Lufthansa Technik AG, Honeywell International Inc., Liebherr International AG, Thales Group, Dassault Group, Textron Inc., Raytheon Technologies Corp., Rolls Royce plc, CAMAR Aircraft Parts Company, and others.




The global aerospace parts manufacturing market is poised for substantial growth in the coming decade. Despite the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and fluctuating component costs, the industry is set to rebound, driven by increasing demand for new aircraft, advancements in technology, and the growing need for replacement parts and maintenance. As the industry navigates these dynamics, the focus will be on adopting advanced manufacturing techniques, exploring new materials like composites, and leveraging technologies and predictive maintenance.






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In the highly demanding conditions of space, the selection of materials used for spacecraft and associated systems are critical to mission success. The advent of advanced plastics, specifically high-temperature resistant polymers, has ushered in a new era of resilience and efficiency in the space industry.

These polymers, characterized by their exceptional performance under severe conditions, have proven to be indispensable in the design and construction of spacecraft components. In this informative brief from AIP Precision Machining, we explore the benefits of high-performance polymers, specifically their role in enhancing reliability, longevity and performance of spacecraft systems.


Critical Advantages of High-Performance Polymers in Demanding Spacecraft Applications

Employed in demanding spacecraft applications, plastics confer a multitude of tangible benefits. These materials exhibit low outgassing characteristics under vacuum conditions, an attribute critical for avoiding contamination in extreme outer space environments. They exhibit minimal friction, demonstrating significant life expectancy and diminished wear on interfacing metal components in vacuum, crucial for the overall durability and operational longevity of integral spacecraft apparatus.

Superior sealing capabilities, coupled with a consistent actuation torque when incorporated in spacecraft valves, affirm their practical utility in these complex mechanical systems. Inherent resistance to solvents, propellants, and other corrosive agents ensures their survival against the aggressive chemical milieu found in space. Moreover, these materials are resilient to radiation, sourced both internally and externally from the spacecraft, and exhibit noteworthy resistance to atomic oxygen-induced erosion.

The temperature adaptability of these plastics is demonstrated by their operational reliability within the space environment, where temperatures range from -150°C to 130°C, and they exhibit resistance to elevated temperatures in rocket engine applications. Exhibiting optimal flammability characteristics, these materials are compatible with both liquid oxygen (LOX) and gaseous oxygen (GOX), critical for maintaining safety in the highly reactive environments of spacecraft.

A key advantage of these plastics is their minimal moisture absorption prior to flight, a feature that preserves their structural and operational integrity. Additionally, they maintain excellent dimensional stability, exhibiting a low and consistent coefficient of thermal expansion.

These materials possess mechanical properties robust enough to withstand the extreme stresses associated with launch. Their lightweight nature, high specific strength and high specific modulus, contribute to the overall mass efficiency and increase payload capabilities of spacecraft. The excellent fatigue resistance of these materials, enabling them to withstand vibration and thermal cycling, is a vital aspect of spacecraft longevity.

Electrical insulation is another key application for these materials, which exhibit high dielectric strength, low dielectric constant, and low dissipation factor across a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. This is important when these materials are used for spacecraft antenna radomes. Their low thermal conductivity makes them apt choices for thermal insulation applications. Further, these materials possess vibration-damping characteristics, a critical requirement for safeguarding sensitive optics and electronics onboard spacecraft.


Types of High-Performance Polymers Used on Spacecraft Applications


The space environment presents a myriad of challenges that place considerable demands on the materials used in spacecraft. To meet these requirements, it’s crucial to turn to materials that offer superior performance characteristics. High-performance plastics stand at the forefront of this revolution, providing a unique blend of properties such as exceptional thermal resistance, chemical resilience, and structural integrity.

Let’s delve into the advantages of three high-performance plastics— ULTEM®, TORLON®, and VESPEL®—including their properties, benefits, and common applications. Each of these materials brings a unique set of benefits for aerospace applications, and understanding these nuances is key to harnessing their full potential.



Ultem®, an amorphous thermoplastic polyetherimide (PEI) resin, is renowned for its exceptional thermal resistance, dielectric strength, stiffness, and good chemical resistance, making it a material pick for various space and rocket propulsion systems applications.

Ultem’s notable characteristics are high processability, dimensional stability, environmental stress resistance, and flammability resistance, all of which are critical for the harsh and unpredictable conditions of space. It also offers long-term heat resistance, which is a significant factor for components exposed to extreme temperatures, which is beneficial for rocket launches.

Ultem’s elevated tensile strength of 15,200psi and consistent performance up to 340ºF underline its suitability for high-strength applications in the space industry. Its long-term creep resistance ensures the material does not deform under long-term mechanical stress. This makes it an excellent substitute for metal in many structural applications of spacecraft and rockets. The inherent flame resistance, chemical and hydrolysis resistance, and one of the highest dielectric strengths (830 V/mil ASTM D194) among thermoplastics are additional advantages that Ultem provides.

This material’s unique processability and dimensional stability, combined with its mechanical properties, provide considerable flexibility and freedom to design engineers. As a result, Ultem can be used in diverse components, including electrical insulators and parts of the propulsion system that require high strength and heat resistance.

Ultem’s versatility also extends to underwater connector bodies, an essential aspect in certain space missions that involve water landing of spacecraft. Furthermore, its unique dielectric properties make it suitable for analytical instrumentation and semiconductor process components found in spacecraft and satellites.

In summary, Ultem, with its balanced mechanical properties and processability, offers unique solutions to the space research industry’s demanding requirements. It is a premier high-temperature resistant polymer in the design and construction of spacecraft, rocket propulsion systems, and satellites.




●        Dimensional Stability

●        Environmental Stress Resistance

●        Flammability Resistance

●        High Processability

●        High Stiffness

●        High Strength

●        Long-Term Heat Resistance

●        Smoke Generation Resistance

●        Toxicity Resistance

●        Analytical Instrumentation

●        Dielectric Properties Required

●        Electrical Insulators

●        High Strength Applications

●        Reusable Medical Devices

●        Semiconductor Process Components

●        Structural Components

●        Underwater Connector Bodies




Torlon®, Polyamide-Imide (PAI) resin, is one of the highest-performing, melt-processible plastics. Due to its ability to retain strength and stiffness up to 500°F (260°C), its excellent wear resistance, and ability to endure severe thermal, chemical, and stress conditions, Torlon finds its place in many critical applications within space and rocket propulsion systems.

Several grades of Torlon are available, each with specific use cases. These include Torlon® 4203 (primarily for electrical and high-strength applications), Torlon® 4301 (general-purpose wear), Torlon® 4XG (glass-reinforced), and Torlon® 4XCF (carbon-reinforced). These varieties allow for a wide range of applications based on specific needs within the space industry.


See the SpecsDiscover Torlon’s Grades for Aerospace Applications


One of the notable characteristics of Torlon PAI is its high compressive strength, which is double that of PEEK and about 30% higher than Ultem PEI. This impressive strength, paired with the highest tensile strength of any unreinforced thermoplastic (21,000 psi), ensures that Torlon-based components can withstand the extreme mechanical stresses during a rocket launch and space travel.

Torlon also offers excellent wear and radiation resistance, both of which are essential properties for materials used in space environments. Inherent low flammability and smoke emission make it an ideal material for high temperature and potentially hazardous conditions present in rocket propulsion systems.

Torlon’s extremely low thermal expansion and superior creep resistance make it an excellent choice for tight-tolerance applications. This is especially useful in space applications where maintaining precise dimensional tolerances is crucial for system reliability and efficiency.

Structural parts of spacecraft and rocket propulsion systems are areas where Torlon is extensively used, as these parts must resist the high temperature and intense stress conditions of space travel. High-temperature electrical connectors, a critical component for successful signal transmission and data collection in spacecraft and satellites, can also benefit from the use of Torlon due to its excellent thermal resistance and high strength.

Moreover, Torlon’s excellent wear resistance and strength make it suitable for wear rings and valve seats in rocket engines, contributing to the longevity and efficiency of propulsion systems. It’s also used in bearing cages that support the rotation of mechanical parts, aiding in the smooth operation of various systems within the spacecraft.

However, Torlon’s moisture absorption rate, while not as low as other high-performance plastics, should be taken into account when designing components for use in humid environments. This consideration is essential to ensure the longevity and performance of Torlon-based parts in all space missions.

Overall, Torlon, with its excellent thermal, chemical, and stress resistance, coupled with high strength and stiffness, offers significant advantages in the design and construction of spacecraft, rocket propulsion systems, and satellites, thus playing a critical role in the space industry’s advancements.




●        Excellent Chemical Resistance

●        Excellent Stress Resistance

●        Excellent Thermal Resistance

●        Excellent Wear Resistance

●        High Stiffness

●        High Strength

●        Bearing Cages

●        High-Temperature Electrical Connectors

●        Structural Parts

●        Valve Seats

●        Wear Rings

●        Seals



The high-performance polyimide resin Vespel® is a well-known name in the aerospace, semiconductor, and transportation technology industries. It is highly valued for its combination of heat resistance, lubricity, dimensional stability, chemical resistance, and creep resistance. This balance of properties makes it particularly suitable for use in extreme and hostile environmental conditions, such as those encountered in space.

One of the remarkable characteristics of Vespel is its high-temperature resistance. This makes it ideal for use in the space industry where materials are frequently subjected to extreme temperatures. Furthermore, Vespel does not exhibit significant outgassing, even at high temperatures. This makes it useful for manufacturing lightweight heat shields and crucible support structures for spacecraft and rocket propulsion systems, where any outgassing could cause contamination and performance issues.

Vespel’s outstanding strength and impact resistance combined with low wear rates also contribute to its broad use in the space industry. Rocket propulsion systems and satellites need materials that can withstand extreme conditions while maintaining their mechanical properties. With its ability to retain mechanical properties at very high temperatures (up to 500ºF), Vespel serves as an excellent candidate for these systems.

Vespel’s high resistance to chemical corrosion makes it a suitable choice for parts that might come into contact with various industrial hydraulic fluids, fuels, and solvents during the spacecraft and satellite operations. This chemical resistance contributes to the longevity and reliability of the systems where Vespel is used. The chart below shows a breakdown of Vespel’s chemical resistance to common industrial fluids:


Chemical Media F K Time Hrs.

% Tensile Strength Retained by SP-1

Industrial Fluids
Hydraulic Fluid 248 393 1000 100
JP-4 Jet Fuel 210 372 1900 80
Jet Engine Oils 500 533 600 60 (90)(2)
Mineral Oil 392 473 1000 70  (90)(2)
Silicone Fluid 500 533 1000 70 (85)(2)
Ticresyl Phosphate (oil additive) 500 533 1000 80


In vacuum applications and extremely low cryogenic temperatures, Vespel performs exceptionally well, which is crucial for many space applications. Vespel’s ability to perform from cryogenic to extremely high temperatures results in a great seat or seal material for propulsion fuel systems. Despite absorbing a small amount of water that can lead to longer pump times in a vacuum, its overall performance in vacuum environments is commendable.

The ease with which Vespel can be machined to achieve complex geometries and tight tolerances offers great flexibility to design engineers. This allows for the creation of unique, intricate components necessary in aerospace applications, from bearings to critical aircraft parts.


Looking for design freedom and cost effective options? See how CNC machining stacks up against other plastics machining techniques.


While some polymers may surpass Vespel in individual properties, the combination of strength, temperature resistance, stability, and low outgassing sets Vespel apart, making it a trusted choice for various applications in the space industry and rocket propulsion systems.




●        High-Temperature Resistance

●        Overcomes Severe Sealing and Wear

●        Withstands Harsh Environments

●        Aerospace Applications

●        Semiconductor Technology

●        Transportation Technology


Advancing aerospace edge technologies with AIP’s Unrivaled Expertise

In this examination of high-performance polymers ULTEM® PEI, TORLON® PAI, and VESPEL® Resin we’ve underscored the pivotal role they play in advancing the frontier of space exploration. The impressive array of traits they exhibit — such as superior chemical, thermal, and stress resistance, low outgassing rates, limited moisture uptake, exceptional mechanical strength and rigidity — are all indispensable to thrive in an extraterrestrial environment.

Crucially, these materials show resilience under extreme operating conditions, as well as superior dimensional stability, low coefficients of thermal expansion, and high resistance to radiation and microcracking. These properties collectively ensure the structural integrity and longevity of spacecraft during challenging space missions.

As we propel further into an era characterized by heightened space exploration activity, the judicious choice and application of these high-performance materials become increasingly critical. By integrating these materials into spacecraft, we not only boost the performance and lifespan of these vehicles but also enhance the cost-efficiency of space missions through weight minimization.

The importance of high-performance plastics and composites in current and future space initiatives is irrefutable. These materials, with their unparalleled and advantageous properties, are catalyzing unprecedented advancements in space technology, and in turn, accelerating our journey into the cosmos.

At AIP, we are steadfastly committed to advancing the frontiers of materials science to meet the needs of the most challenging applications, including those in the space sector. We invite you to join us on this exciting journey of discovery and innovation. Partner with AIP and leverage our expertise in high-performance materials to propel your space technology solutions to new heights. Contact us today to learn how our solutions can help you overcome your space application challenges and realize your objectives. Together, let’s shape the future of space exploration.

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Why PEEK Plastic Material Biocompatibility Is the Standard in Orthopedic Surgery

Medical-grade Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a radiolucent high-performance polymer alternative to metallic biomaterials. It comes in different versions ranging from unfilled grades with varying molecular weight, to those with image-contrast and carbon fiber-reinforcement grades for demanding medical treatments inside the body or in the operating room. Carbon-reinforced PEEK is similar in strength to cortical bone, making it an attractive biomaterial for spinal fusion surgery, and reduce stress shielding.

In orthopedics, PEEK has been used for intervertebral cages, posterior & anterior instrumentation, and standard lumbar fusion. Additionally, clinical studies of PEEK for cervical fusion have revealed its advantages over titanium or cadaver bone.


As this material continues to gain traction in the orthopedic industry, it has shown superior qualities over stainless steel and titanium for biocompatibility, radiolucency, and durability.


A Brief History of PEEK in Orthopedic Surgery


Since the 1980s, Polyaryletherketones (PEEK) have been utilized as biomaterials in trauma, orthopedic, and spinal implants. Due to its relative inertness, radiolucency and chemical resistance, PEEK has had the greatest clinical impact in spine implant design.


Laboratory studies during the 1990s confirmed that PEEK implants had the needed combination of wear, strength, creep, and fatigue resistance to replace the metallic biomaterials in spinal implants. An intervertebral fusion cage was the first piece of spinal instrumentation that had been made with PEEK rather than metal. It was implanted in 1999 and made with PEEK-OPTIMA™ from Invibio Biomaterial Solutions.


The Future of PEEK Beyond Spinal Implants


Since then, PEEK has only expanded as a performance biomaterial for instrumented spine surgery. In the United States, spine fusion is one of the leading surgeries for patients who suffer from chronic neck and back pain that does not respond to preliminary treatments.


According to Orthopedic Design & Technology, around 215,000 Americans underwent spine fusion procedures in 1997. By 2007 that number had increased to 402,000. PEEK is now an established biomaterial that will only continue to expand.


The Biocompatibility and Biostability of PEEK

PEEK displays excellent biocompatibility and biostability as a performance medical-grade material. To differentiate, let’s briefly discuss biocompatibility versus biostability.


Biocompatibility – The biological requirements of a biomaterial or biomaterials used in a medical device. When it comes into contact with human tissue and fluids, it’s compatible with the environment and will not incur adverse effects.


Biostability – The ability of a material to maintain its physical and chemical integrity after implantation into living tissue. The FDA mandates that any medical material that comes into direct or indirect contact with human tissue and fluids must maintain mechanical and molecular integrity.


Anything touching or interacting with human tissue and bone must be both biocompatible and biostable for a patient. This is one area where metals fail compared to PEEK. Metals like titanium are a standard material for spinal fusion, yet clinical studies continue to reveal the advantages of PEEK.


Benefits of PEEK for Spinal Fusion

PEEK has a growing advocacy in the field of orthopedics for cervical fusion as well as spinal fusion. Published literature supports the material’s advantages and highlights these key benefits for patients with spinal and cervical fusion surgery:

  • • Improved spinal alignment and geometry
  • • Reduced hospital stays and decreased blood loss
  • • Decreased complication rates
  • • Good/excellent functional outcomes and improved patient satisfaction
  • • Excellent fusion rates


Biomaterial Comparison: PEEK Versus Metals

When it comes to standards of medical biomaterials, PEEK tends to outshine metals such as stainless steel and even titanium alloy.


Stainless Steel

Stainless steel has the advantage of being inexpensive, durable, and easily alloyed. However, as medical practices have advanced, stainless steel is often replaced by titanium and PEEK implants for spinal fusions.


First, stainless steel has low biocompatibility and is more likely to leech artifacts due to corrosion once implanted. This is a danger to patient safety and increases the need for surgeries overtime. PEEK, on the other hand, closely resembles cortical bone tissue and is flexible enough to graft onto tissue.


Additionally, metals like stainless steel visually obscure the healing site under fluoroscopy, making it more difficult for doctors to see whether the spine is healing correctly when doing checkups via X-rays or MRIs. Conversely, PEEK is a radiolucent material that offers ease, comfort, and a clear view to monitor stability and healing.


Titanium Alloy

Titanium alloy is an accepted standard biomaterial for spinal and cervical fusion surgeries. Compared to PEEK, it has a similar rate of fusion for cervical and lumbar spine fusions.


One potential complication of spinal fusion is the subsidence of disc height in the post-operative period. Recent studies to assess subsidence in titanium and PEEK cages showed a notably increased rate of subsidence in titanium versus PEEK in patient follow-ups.


This is a serious concern for surgeons looking to improve the rate of patient recovery and lessen repeat spinal fusion surgery. In this regard, PEEK is a superior performance material for safer and better spinal fusion practices.


Advancing Orthopedic Innovation With Medical-grade PEEK


The fields of orthopedics and spinal fusion continue to research new methods for best practices in the industry. Over the last three decades, medical-grade PEEK has established itself as the performance biomaterial of choice for surgeons and OEMs. Medical device design demands the highest level of sanitation, biocompatibility, and precision in one of the most extreme environments, the human body.


As a material that closely resembles cortical bone, PEEK has an established advantage over other metals such as titanium that have shown degradation and leeching over time. As OEMs search to expand the horizon of orthopedic medicine, PEEK polymer machinists like AIP stand at the ready to provide unrivaled expertise on design, function, and quick prototyping.


Talk to a team member from AIP about your next medical grade PEEK project. 

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Torlon® Takes the Heat in Mission-Critical Aerospace Components


Few businesses on the planet share the same level of scrutiny towards their components as those in the aerospace industry. The material properties of Torlon® are what make the high-performance thermoplastic a top material pick in the industry.


To pass the benchmark, aerospace components must be:

  • – Impervious to corrosive and oxidizing chemicals
  • – Able to function in both cold and hot environments
  • – Lightweight to reduce overall vehicle weight and increase payload
  • – Strong enough to withstand constant friction, impact, wear, temperature extremes, and high pressures


Few polymer materials can check all those boxes, but Torlon® is among them. For decades aerospace OEMs have relied on Torlon® to solve unique challenges in the aerospace and defense sector. One of its most outstanding properties is the ability to maintain mechanical stability at extreme temperatures. For this reason, it’s often used for bushings, fasteners, and screws in Boeing 787s and even F-16 fuel and air connectors.


Properties of Torlon®

Besides incredible thermal stability and resistance rivaling aluminum, copper, and steel, Torlon®  is well known for its strength under pressure and chemical resistance. Torlon’s benefits include the following:


  • – Wear resistance in dry and lubricated environments
  • – Maintains strength and stiffness up to 500°F (260°C)
  • – Low-temperature toughness and impact strength
  • – Chemical resistance, including acids and most organics
  • – Low creep and wear under load
  • – Excellent compressive strength and extremely low CLTE
  • – Low flammability and smoke generation



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High-Temperature Wear Resistance

Torlon® falls within the family of imidized performance polymers. Celazole® (PBI), VESPEL® (PI), and Torlon® (PAI) all perform at elevated temperatures up to and above 500°F (260°C). These grades of thermoplastics have resistance to chemicals, steam, and wear. Torlon® PAI is often accepted as a metal replacement in aerospace applications where temperatures range from cryogenic to extreme heat, and the application requires thermal/electrical insulation and weight reduction.



Torlon® Solves Tough Aerospace Challenges


Torlon® has been a critical material for many years with industries relying on its innate qualities to solve complicated challenges. How can Torlon® do the same for the aerospace industry? Consider the following:


1. Boeing thermal isolators – Increasing fuel efficiency by reducing aircraft weight is a constant goal for the aviation industry. In the case of the Boeing 787, Torlon® was able to help make that goal attainable. The engineers at Boeing theorized they could reduce the overall weight of the aircraft by feeding hydraulic lines through the fuel tanks rather than around them. For this to work, the hydraulic lines needed insulation that could handle being exposed and heated by harsh environments. Torlon® 4203 PAI was a perfect choice because it does not conduct heat nor electricity, which would have caused problems, as temperatures range from -40°F (-40°C) up 350 F (177°C).


2. Boeing bushings for blocker doors – Blocker doors allow the aircraft to slow down by creating a reverse thrust. The doors must be precise, and that task falls to the bushings in the hinge assembly. They must maintain a low friction and wear rate while surviving temperatures ranging from -40° to 500°F (260°C), and all without lubrication. Torlon® 4301 PAI provides all these needed properties.


3. Worldwide Aviation fastening screws – Aerospace OEMs need screws made from a material that can provide a capacity for heavy load-bearing while being optimized for production. In the case of radar systems, the screws also need to be made out of a material that won’t interfere with detection capabilities. For that reason alone, metal screws are out, as they’ll interfere with the radar’s ability to function. Torlon® 4203, on the other hand, is both RFI and EMI transparent, it doesn’t corrode, and it has a fantastic strength-to-weight ratio.


4. F-16 fuel and air connectors – With auxiliary tanks, the F-16 can take on the role of a strategic bomber, as its range is extended by a full 50%. At first, the fuel connectors were made from stainless steel but required additional insulation against lightning strikes, rendering metal connectors infeasible. Finding an alternative material proved difficult due to other variables; it needed to be resistant to temperatures up to 400°F (205°C), be chemically resistant to jet fuel, and handle constant vibrations. Torlon® 4203 was the answer, as it reached all those requirements while also handling pressures beyond 650 psi. This choice improved both the part performance and manufacturing costs.


In all of these real-world examples, Torlon® demonstrates its superiority in strength and thermal stability. The fact that it’s successfully used in critical applications is proof of the material’s reliability.



AIP, Unparalleled Results in Aerospace-grade Torlon® Machining


AIP precision Machining

Advancements in aerospace design keep defense technology at the forefront. Material design with precision plastics is a core part of this evolution. High-performance plastics like Torlon® provide lightweight characteristics and mechanical stability even at extreme temperatures above 500°F (260°C). Aerospace contractors look for precision and consistent results in machined precision plastics.


As a global leader in precision performance plastics, AIP understands how one single machined part contributes to the efficacy of an entire aircraft. We have machined complex geometries with .002 mm precision. Our machinists have over 40 years of experience working with defense OEMs. From Torlon to PEEK or Vespel®, our material design vetting process aims to produce a final piece that does more than meet criteria; it accelerates the mission and contributes to your entire bottom line.


Talk to our machinists and engineers today about your aerospace application; we can provide you with a design and part prototype oftentimes within ten business days.



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PEEK Polymer Biocompatibility in the Operating Room or Inside the Body

Biocompatible precision polymers, such as Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have revolutionized medical technology practices for over a decade. Medical devices and implants that come direct or indirect contact with human tissue and blood must meet strict guidelines for short and long-term use.


Biocompatibility in spinal and other dental implants, for example, is critical to patient health and bone fusion for long-term functionality. Medical-grade PEEK has the advantage of excellent chemical resistance and stability at high temperatures. This makes it a material choice for medical procedures inside the body or in the operating room.


In our latest PEEK brief, we delve into the advantage of PEEK polymer material biocompatibility.


The Superior Biocompatibility of PEEK for Surgical Instruments & Orthopedic Implants


Medical grade PEEK has gained traction as a leading medical technology for its advanced properties and unique compatibility with human tissue and fluids. It has also become a material choice for implants and instruments over other medical-grade plastics and metals. Additionally, medical OEMs will use PEEK in precision medical devices that require stability in high heat and chemical environments.




Characteristics of Medical-grade PEEK

PEEK fulfills the requirements for biocompatibility under FDA and ISO 10993 guidelines. Not only does it maintain continuous use up to 480°F (250°C), it’s also an attractive precision plastic for components used in the medical field for the following reasons:


  • • Autoclave Sterilization Stability
  • • Abrasion Resistance
  • • Chemical Resistance
  • • High Ductility
  • • High Elongation
  • • Hydrolysis Resistance
  • • Low Outgassing


Grades of Medical PEEK

There are several medical-grades of PEEK, but here are some common brand names sourced from AIP’s industry partners.



TECATEC PEEK MT CW50® black plates are based on Victrex® PEEK that is reinforced with 50% vol. carbon fibers. This carbon fiber reinforcement elevates the stiffness and strength to be many times those of plates made from unreinforced PEEK or plates with short fiber reinforcement.


This grade of PEEK has been tested and approved for biocompatibility as per ISO 10993 for blood and tissue contact. It is autoclavable as it shows no significant loss of mechanical properties or degradation, even after many sterilization cycles. TECATEC® PEEK MT CW50 black is also suitable for gamma sterilization and is X-ray transparent. This makes it an ideal material for medical applications in multi-use conditions.



Ensinger ‘s TECAPEEK® MT was specially developed to meet the requirements for materials used in medical technology. Applications range from the orthopedic market, with the joint reconstruction and traumatology segments, to surgical instruments, the dental market, and many more.



Röchling’s SustaPEEK MG (Medical-grade) has excellent chemical resistance, high temperature stability, and excellent resistance to steam sterilization. It is commonly used for metal replacement in surgical implant applications. It is FDA, USP Class VI compliant, & ISO 10993-5 certified.


Ketron PEEK

MCAM’s Ketron® PEEK is a biocompatible polymer that boasts high mechanical properties with a continuous heat resistance of up to 482°F (250°C). Its great dimensional stability, excellent chemical & hydrolysis resistance, as well as its ability to sustain steam cleaning makes it a perfect polymer choice for medical implants, and other medical tool implementations.


Additionally, materials undergo numerous quality tests throughout phases of production, including 100% ultrasonic testing. Lot and batch traceability is available upon request with in-depth certification documents and raw material certificates of analysis.



Your Partner in Advancing Medical Technology


As a premier partner in precision plastic component manufacturing, we understand the demands of the medical industry. Cutting corners is out of the question for AIP’s expertise and craftsmanship. That’s why we are here to provide engineering guidance and finesse throughout the process. From initial design consultation to material selection and prototyping, we make it our priority to machine close tolerances, produce precise geometries, and meet the highest levels of sanitation.


Quality, accuracy, and durability are the norm at AIP. Not only do our customers demand it, we demand it of ourselves. We include quality assurance as an integral part of our process and is addressed at every step of your project, from concept to completion.


Contact an AIP team member for a quote for medical grade PEEK.

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Mission Critical Polymers for Performance Rocketry

Every part of a rocket’s design is critical. If one piece fails or the performance of that piece doesn’t match the demands of the environment, then the whole rocket fails. Organizations like NASA, Boeing, Blue Origin and SpaceX approach rocket part design and selection with careful consideration.

Polymers have a unique position in the Aerospace and Defense market as they present features and capabilities that can stand the test of harsh environments and continuous use. High heat, dielectric strength, moisture resistance, insulative properties and impact strength all come into play in building the parts that make a performance rocket launch skyward.

In this insightful blog, we discuss four key aerospace polymers enabling success in the rocket industry.


VESPEL® by DuPont

Polyimide (PI) is an extreme-performance thermoplastic branded by DuPont Co. as VESPEL®. The material’s prime characteristics include outstanding creep resistance, high impact strength, and low wear at high PV. VESPEL® components allow for continuous operation temperatures of 500°F (260°C) with short-term excursion capabilities of 900°F (482°C). It is a well-known performance thermoplastic for aircraft parts, such as thrust washers, valve seats, seals and wear components.

VESPEL® is available in many grades to meet specific design requirements. The current available grades include SP-1 (Unfilled), SP-21 (15% Graphite), SP-22 (40% Graphite), SP-211 (15% Graphite and 10% PTFE) and SP-3 (15% Molybdenum Disulfide).



When it comes to high heat and stress, TORLON® can take it. Polyamide Imide (PAI) is an amorphous thermoplastic with the highest performing, melt-processability. It maintains strength and stiffness up to 500°F (260°C), has excellent wear resistance, and endures harsh thermal, chemical and stress conditions. With its continuous use under high heat and stress, this material is often used in the following aerospace applications:  bearing cages, high temperature electrical connectors, structural parts, valve seats, seals and wear components.

There are several TORLON® grades available for PAI, including TORLON® 4203 (electrical and high strength), TORLON® 4301 (general purpose wear), TORLON® 4XG (glass-reinforced) and TORLON® 4XCF (carbon-reinforced).




KEL-F, or PCTFE (polychlorotrifluoroethylene), is a type of fluoropolymer that has a wide range of applications in the aerospace industry. It is prized for its high strength and durability, as well as its resistance to chemicals, heat, and wear. What makes KEL-F® stand out is its temperature range from -400°F to +400°F. KEL-F® In aerospace applications, KEL-F® is often used in fuel lines, hydraulic systems, and gaskets. Thanks to its unique properties, KEL-F® is an essential material for many aerospace applications.

At AIP, we machine various grades and brand name PCTFE. Branded names include the following: KEL-F® and NEOFLON®.




PTFE, or Polytetrafluoroethylene, is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications in aerospace due to its low coefficient of friction, high temperatures and chemical resistance, and non-stick properties. PTFE was first used in the aerospace industry in the 1940s and has since been used in a variety of aerospace applications such as fuel lines, hydraulic systems, and gaskets.

At AIP, we machine various grades and brand name PTFE. Branded names include the following:  FLUOROSINT® 207, FLUOROSINT® 500, DYNEON®, SEMITRON® ESD 500HR, SEMITRON® PTFE, TEFLON®.



Polymers take flight as a new standard of aircraft excellence

As aerospace rocketry and aircraft continue to evolve with advanced technologies and sophisticated capabilities, material selection is crucial. Every piece that goes into a rocket is carefully thought and crafted for the highest level of performance. Torlon®, Vespel®, KEL-F® and PTFE are all thermoplastics enabling success in mission critical Aerospace and Defense rocketry.



Supporting Materials

Aerospace Market Materials

Aerospace & Defense Machining

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The top 3 reasons to consider Torlon® over metal for your advanced engineering application

PolyamideImide (PAI) is a leading thermoplastic engineering plastic that offers extraordinary toughness and strength, even at temperatures up to 275°C (525°F). One of the leading PAI grades on the market is Solvay’s Torlon®. Developed for demanding aerospace and defense applications, Torlon® has also found broad use in automotive, energy, medical and other industries. Its superb performance makes it an excellent replacement for metals in many weight-sensitive applications. With its high strength-to-weight ratio, Torlon® PAI can help reduce component weight and lower manufacturing costs.

In this informational guide, we discuss the top three properties that make Torlon® a leading material pick for mission critical applications.



Top 3 Properties of TORLON® PAI

There is no doubt, this thermoplastic works well under pressure. PAI competes with metals like titanium and steel when it comes to high strength and wear resistance. These properties coupled with good mechanical stability over a broad range of temperatures put Torlon at the top of the material selection list. Let’s take a closer look.


High strength and wear resistance

Wear-resistant grades of Torlon® PAI offer custom combinations of mechanical and tribological properties. For this reason, PAI is often a metal replacement due to its capability to function under a wide range of temperatures, high pressure and velocities (PV). This is the case even when lubrication is marginal or non-existent. PAI can be formulated into specialized grades to suit even the harshest of environments.


High temperature resistance and functionality

When it comes to heat, PAI outperforms many advanced engineering resins, exhibiting great durability at 200 C (400 F). This makes it a leading choice for mission critical components used in repetitive-use, load-bearing operations. Carbon-fiber and glass-filled grades of PAI add stiffness, strength, low creep, and enhanced thermal expansion properties.


Chemical resistance

In critical industries like automotive and aerospace, chemical exposure is common for engineering materials. Performance materials like PAI are unaffected by aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons, and most acids at moderate temperatures. However, this polymer does not respond well to saturated steam, strong bases, and some high-temperature acid systems. This is why it’s important to ensure proper post-cure for PAI parts. Torlon®, like PEEK, does not perform well in moist environments and will absorb water, but the rate is slow and parts can be restored to original dimension and properties by drying.



Industry Applications of Torlon® PAI


Aerospace and defense

Components for aerospace and defense have to maintain functionality under extreme temperatures, withstand high pressures, and resist corrosion and friction. Torlon® PAI is one of the leading thermoplastics on the market that meets these requirements, while also saving aircraft on weight reduction.



Thermoplastics like Torlon® PAI have gained popularity as a metal replacement, especially in the automotive industry. PAI has the strength, impact resistance, and high temperature tolerance at a fraction of the weight of metal. It is used for transmission components where there are high levels of heat, pressure and friction.


Oil and gas

Due to its chemical resistance and continuous use under pressure and intense temperatures, PAI is a natural pick for unpredictable, harsh environments like those in the oil and gas industry. Where metal easily corrodes in these environments, PAI is the right material pick for applications like seals, back-up seal rings, bearings and bushings.


Electric / Electrical

Applications of PAI in the electric / electrical sector include insulators and electrical connectors. PAI has excellent dielectric strength, outstanding impact strength, and electrical insulation. These properties make it an ideal material pick for high-performance connectors, relays and switches.



The semiconductor industry demands high-temperature processing and continuous stability. PAI offers both and more. It keeps components dimensionally stable at variable temperatures, provides pure surfaces, and has a strong resistance to chemicals like acids and solvents. In the semiconductor industry, common applications for PAI include wafer handling, bearing surfaces, IC test equipment sockets and handlers.




Grades of TORLON® PAI machined at AIP

At AIP, we partner with leading polymer suppliers like Solvay to provide the best grades of thermoplastic PAI on the market. We source and machine several grades of Torlon® from general purpose to metal replacements for advanced engineering applications.


Torlon® 4203

Torlon® 4203 is the unfilled or natural grade of Torlon® PAI that outperforms other grades with the best impact resistance and the most elongation. PAI has the highest strength and stiffness of any thermoplastic up to 275°C (525°F). Torlon® 4203 can be used for a variety of applications but due to its excellent electrical properties, it is commonly machined for electronic equipment, connectors, spline liners, thrust washers, valve seals, bearings and temperature test sockets.


Torlon® 4301

Torlon® 4301 is a general purpose, wear-resistant grade of PAI containing PTFE and graphite. It offers high compressive and flexural strength with a low coefficient of friction along with good mechanical properties. Where high temperature and strength are a necessity, Torlon® 4301 is a good material choice. Common applications include thrust washers, bearings, and wear rings.


Torlon® 4XG

As a 30% glass-reinforced extruded grade of PAI, Torlon® 4XG is well suited to higher load structural or electronic applications. For applications that require a high degree of dimensional stability, 4XG offers high-performance. Several uses of 4XG include burn-in sockets, gears, valve plates, impellers, rotors, terminal strips and insulators.


Torlon® 4XCF

Torlon® 4XCF is a 30% carbon-reinforced extruded grade of PAI that has the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion and the most impressive fatigue resistance of all thermoplastics. This durable PAI grade is a common metal replacement  for mission-critical aerospace components, in addition to impellers, shrouds and pistons.

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